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In the KJV, amber is mentioned three times by Ezekiel (Ezek 1:4, 27; 8:2).Other versions use the terms glowing metal or gleaming bronze. The exact original meaning of the word is uncertain.In Revelation -20, John names twelve stones that adorn the foundation of the New Jerusalem.The difficulty has been in knowing the exact identity of the stones named.
In Bible times stones were identified by color, such as the Hebrew term odem which simply means “red stone.” This could have been any number of red stones known at the time (i.e. As more information surfaces thanks to archaeological findings and the writings of ancient historians such as Theophrastus (372-287 BC), Elder Pliny (23-79 AD), and Josephus (37-100 AD), we are able to come a bit closer to making some identifications sure.
Large amounts of agate have been found in archaeological digs of Sumer, dating back to 3500 BC.
Theophrastus (372-287 BC) appears to have been the first man to write about agates.
Pliny the Elder (23-79 AD) who was a historian at the time the Book of Revelation was written, describes the beryl (berullos) of that day, “The lapidaries cut all beryls of a hexagonal form because the color..heightened by reflections resulting from the angles.
The most esteemed beryls are those which in color resemble the pure green of the sea.” This would seem to indicate the aquamarine as being the beryl of choice in that time.
Agate is named as the second stone in the third row of the High Priest’s breastplate.